There are eight main Celtic Festivals - earth's natural calendar, the cycles of Nature - recognised by Celts, Pagans and Wiccans as sabbats :
Samhain, Midwinter Solstice or Yule,
Imbolc, Spring/Vernal Equinox, Beltane, Midsummer Solstice, Lammas and the Autumn Equinox
The changes in the seasons reflect our lives - changing through birth, maturity, old age and death.
This is the beginning of the Celtic and Wiccan New Year. Samhain
is Irish-Gaelic for 'the Summer's end', and is pronounced 'sow-in'.
Samhain represented the death of the summer sun god, Lugh.
This festival celebrates Nature's cycle of death and renewal, a time when the Celts acknowledged the beginning and ending of all things in life and nature. Samhain marked the end of harvest and the beginning of the New Celtic Year. The first month of the Celtic year was Samonios - ‘Seed Fall’.
Two Roman festivals became incorporated with Samhain - 'Feralia', when the Romans commemorated the passing of the dead, and 'Pomona', when the Roman goddess of fruit and trees was honoured. The Halloween tradition of bobbing for apples is thought to derive from the ancient links with the Roman fruit goddess, Pomona, and a Druidical rite associated with water.
Samhain heralds the beginning of Winter when the world starts to darken and the days are getting shorter - the 'dark half' of the year and the demise of the power of the sun.
The triple Goddess - worshipped by the Ancient Britons - is now
in her third aspect of the Crone: the keeper of wisdom and mysteries.
In the Scottish Highlands the Crone was personified as the 'Cailleach Bheur' - the blue-faced hag - the Queen of the Winter.
She was reborn on every All Hallows Eve, returning to bring the Winter and protect animals through the coldest months. She turned to stone on Beltane Eve.
British Summer Time ends today with the clocks going back an
hour - long, dark, velvety evenings arrive.
This festival welcomed the final harvest and the safe storage of crops for the coming Winter. Anything left on the trees, bushes or in the fields after this date was considered ruined by the 'puka', and unedible. The puka or pooka is a mischievous spirit or fairy from Celtic lore.
Samhain is one of the four Celtic fire festivals marking the
quarter points in the year - feasts were held and bonfires were lit throughout
The bonfires were to warm friendly spirits and ward off evil spirits, and also represented the sun which they wished would return, bringing heat and growth.
It was custom to give an ember from the fires to attending families, who would then take it home to start a new cooking fire. These fires were believed to keep the homes happy and free from any lost evil spirits.
The name 'bonfire' is believed to be derived from the custom of burning the bones of the cattle which were slaughtered at this time - a 'bone fire'.
It is believed that the borders between the world of the living
and the dead is thinner on this night - also known as 'Ancestor night' - so
souls of the dead can enter the land of the living. Spirits roam free to revisit
their earthly homes. The Celts looked to their ancestors to bring them guidance
for the coming year and hoped to commune with the spirits at Samhain.
Samhain is considered a celebration of life over death, and a time to remember those who have left the world of the living. Candles would be lit at the graves of loved ones. In Mexico family members light many candles around the graves of their loved ones and lay out special feast foods for the spirits, and remain there all night.
Halloween originates from the ancient Celts' celebrations and is based on their 'Feast of Samhain'. The Catholic church attempted to replace the Pagan festival with All Saints' or All Hallows' day, followed by All Souls' Day, on November 2nd.
The eve became known as: All Saints' Eve, All Hallows' Eve, or Hallowe'en. All Saints' Day is said to be the day when souls walked the Earth. In early Christian tradition souls were released from purgatory on All Hallow's Eve for 48 hours.
In order to protect themselves from any roaming evil spirits the Celts would appease them by offering them treats. The custom of wearing costumes on Halloween is thought to derive from the Celts disguising themselves at Samhain, so the spirits would think that they belonged to their own company. They could then communicate with the spirit world, known as 'souling'.
Samhain is considered a time to eliminate weaknesses - our Celtic
ancestors slaughtered weak animals that were not likely to survive the winter
and their meat was salted and stored for the dark months, this has evolved
into the custom of writing your own weaknesses onto a piece of paper then burning
It was customary at Samhain to leave an empty chair and a plate of food for any dead guests, so that they would not be offended.
At the stroke of midnight - believed to be the hour the dead visited - all remained silent in respect.
The custom of trick-or-treating may have originated from an old
Irish custom of going door-to-door to collect bread, cheese, nuts and apples
in preparation for the feasting at Samhain.
When a candle flame flickers on Halloween night it is being touched by the spirits of dead ancestors.
Those born on All Hallows Eve are believed to have the gift of second sight.
If you catch a falling leaf on Samhain before it touches the ground it will bring you good luck and health for the coming winter.
Stones with a personal mark were thrown into the fire. These
had to be retrieved from the ashes to ensure luck for the coming year, if your
stone was missing or damaged it was considered a sign of forthcoming bad luck.
Also known as 'Nutcrack Night', because it was a popular custom at Samhain to throw nuts on the fire - if a nut burned brightly it meant that the thrower would be alive in twelve months time, and if it flared up brightly it meant marriage within twelve months.
To see if a relationship will last, place two hazelnuts side by side and burn them over a fire. If they stay together as they burn then the couple will last, but if the nuts burst apart the relationship will break up.
Baked cakes were offered up for the souls of the dead. All the family would eat the festival Soul cakes - known as 'barnbrack' cakes in Ireland - which often contained lucky or unlucky tokens : a coin for fortune, a button for remaining unwed, a ring for marriage, a wishbone for your heart's desire, a pea for poverty.
The Ivy Leaf predition: everyone in the house places a perfect ivy leaf into a cup of water and then leave them undisturbed overnight. In the morning if a leaf is still perfect and has not developed any spotting, this predicts that the person who placed the leaf in the cup will enjoy 12 months health until the following Halloween. If not...
In Scotland the fishermen would wade into the sea at Samhain and pour out a bowl of ale into the waves for the 'Shoney' - a sea serpent-like being, to ensure a good catch for the coming year.
At Balmoral on Halloween night, during Queen Victoria's time a bonfire was lit and an effigy of an old woman called the Shandy Dann was indicted with witchcraft, then thrown onto the fire.
At the Forest of Pendle in North Lancashire, at Samhain a ceremony called the 'Lating the Witches' took place. Locals believed witches gathered here on this auspicious night, so lit candles were carried over the hills between 11 p.m and midnight - lighting the witches or 'lating' them. If a candle stayed lit then the witches' power was broken, but if it went out - blown out by a witch - bad luck may follow.
If any animals were suffering ill health on All Hallows Eve, then the farmer would spit on them to try to ward off any evil spirits that may take them.
On the morning of November 1st a silver coin was thrown through the front door of the house. The coin had to remain where it had fallen in order to bring financial luck.
tradition of face-carved pumpkin lanterns is thought to be derived from the
Celts' placing of ancestors' skulls outside their doors at this time. Others
see it as originating from using lanterns to ward off any evil spirits, which
may be wandering through the thin veil into the living world on this All Hallows
The lit pumpkins also symbolise that in the darkness of winter the light continues within the seeds, tubers and bulbs dormant under the earth - they are still full of life and glowing like the candles within the pumpkins.
The name Jack O'Lantern derives from an old Irish tale of a villain who after he died could not enter heaven or hell - a damned soul. So he was condemned to wander the land with only a candle to see his way (some say it was a hot ember from the devil), which he placed inside a gouged out vegetable to act as a lantern. Others believe Jack-O-Lantern was a mischievous spirit who carried a light at night and lures night travellers into bogs or marshes, which were the dwelling places of fairies.
The Jack O' Lantern used to be made from a turnip, but Irish emigrants to America adopted the plentiful pumpkin since it is much easier to carve. In the Isle of Man they still carve turnips to make lanterns and call the night 'Hop To Naa', not Hallowe’en, or Trick or Treating.
Pumpkin Carving make a Jack O'Lantern for Halloween
Samhain was a time for divination and magic, the Druids would
foretell the future on this powerful night.
Many of the customs were performed by young people divining for their future husbands and wives - apples often figured; their connection with fertility is widely recognised :
An old belief is that by peeling an apple on Hallowe'en and keeping the peel in one piece, then throwing it over your shoulder you will discover the initials of a future lover.
By candlelight go alone to a mirror and eat an apple before it, whilst combing your hair. Your future love will be seen in the glass over your shoulder.
Ducking or bobbing for apples was a marriage divination. The first person to bite an apple would be the first to marry in the coming year. 'Dookin’ for apples' is thought to have originated from a Druidical rite associated with water.
Young girls would stick apple pips to the outside of her cheek, with each one standing for her sweethearts. The last pip that stayed stuck was her true love.
Blindfolded girls would go into the fields and pull up the first cabbage they could find. If their cabbage had lots of earth attached to its roots then their future sweetheart would have plenty of money. If they later ate the cabbage it would also reveal their future love's character - bitter or sweet!
In Ireland a popular Halloween game was when a blindfolded person would sit at a table on which were placed several saucers. They choose one by touch, after they have been shuffled about the table. The contents of the saucer foretell the person's fate for the following year :
water means the person will travel, a coin or salt indicates future wealth, earth/clay means someone known to the player will die next year,
a bean predicts poverty and a ring meant marriage.
Samhain or Samhuin stands between the worlds
of the living and dead and outside of ordinary time. It's the day that past
memories meet the hopes of the future. The veil between us and the spirit world
is at its thinnest tonight and we remember our ancestors, recent and from the
distant past. It is death that gives life its purpose and decay that fertilises
It is a time to plant the seeds of new projects, allowing them to germinate over the winter months. It is also considered the time to end old projects and to generally take stock of one's life.
Samhain allows you to come to terms with your past year and leave all mistakes and regrets behind you, in order to move on. Look forward to what the future holds.
Use the magic of this time to say good-bye to a bad habit or addiction, an old relationship, or anything else negative in your life - Samhain is the night to leave it all behind.